The Jung Type Indicator

Psychology & Global Consultancy



Are you or you team interested in 360 degree transformation, or is there needs for improvements for personal development & understanding, or valuation in recruitments? Then we are here to assist you in that process.

The Jung Type Indicator (JTI) is a brief, easy to administer, self-report questionnaire that has been designed to help people identify their psychological type. It has been developed using modern scaling techniques to provide a reliable and valid measure of people’s preferences for the psychological functions.

The JTI is an indispensable tool for helping people manage issues of personal change and growth. By providing insight into the fundamental psychological processes, the JTI stimulates self awareness and acts as a constructive framework in which people can understand and explore their interpersonal and thinking styles.

Within organisations the JTI can be used to enhance personal effectiveness and facilitate team building. The JTI questionnaire items are acceptable to people from a broad range of cultural backgrounds, providing a modern, reliable and valid measure of Jungian type.

Jung’s Theory of Types

One of Jung’s most important discoveries was his realisation that by understanding the way we typically process information, we can gain insights into why we act and feel the way we do. In particular, he noted that in order to better understand ourselves we need to understand the way we characteristically perceive, and then act upon, information. Jung identified two core psychological processes that he termed:

Perceiving, which involves receiving, or taking in, information, and Judging, which involves processing that information (e.g. organising the information and coming to conclusions from it).

Jung further identified two alternative ways of perceiving information, which he termed Sensing and Intuiting, and two alternative ways of judging information, which he termed Thinking and Feeling. Moreover, he noted that these four mental process can be directed either at the external world of people and things, or at the internal world of subjective experience. He termed this attitude towards the outer world Extraversion, and this attitude towards the inner world Introversion. Thus Jung realised the existence of these four basic psychological processes, which can be used either in the external or internal world, mean that people can use their mind in one of eight ways.


Jung further noted that just as people have a preference for the hand they choose to write with, and for the foot they choose to kick a ball with, so too do people have a preference for the mental processes they use to perceive, and judge, the world. In particular, he described how the preferred use of these mental processes leads to important personality differences between people. This is the essence of Jung’s theory of psychological types, which describes how our preferred mental processes for judging and perceiving the world, influence the way we typically feel, think and act in our daily lives.


The Dynamics of Psychological Type

After publishing his seminal work on psychological types in 1921, Jung did little further work in this area. However the importance of his work was recognised by the mother and daughter team, Elizabeth Myers and Catherine Briggs. Realising that if Jung’s ideas were to have any practical application it would be necessary to develop an easy method for assessing a person’s psychological type, Myers and Briggs published the first type indicator in 1949. Moreover, they developed the now famous four-letter type code as a short hand way of describing a person’s type. In addition to providing a short-cut route for describing a person’s psychological type, the four-letter code also reveals a set of complex personality dynamics which provide insights into the order in which the preferred psychological processes are likely to manifest themselves in the person’s daily life.

Tool Measurements

JTI identifies the mental preferences of the individual human being, thus giving insight to:

»»Where do we prefer to direct our attention
»»How to we prefer to receive impressions
»»How do we prefer to make decisions
»»Which life style do we prefer

The JTI consists of 56 statements, and the test person is asked to select the statement which characterizes him most accurately. The result is a four-letter code which appears according to the respondent’s choosing between the two poles on the four belowmentioned dimensions, which the tool examines.

»» Extrovert – Introvert
»» Sensing – Intuition
»» Thinking – Feeling
»» Judgement – Perception

The way to discover the dynamic relationship between these psychological processes is by examining the middle two preferences; SN for perceiving, and TF for judging, types. These are referred to as functions. For any type, one of these functions is dominant and this dominant function is used in the preferred world (external or internal as indicated by the EI preference), with Extraverts using their dominant function in the external world and Introverts using their dominant function in the internal world. Moreover, the function which the type code indicates is not preferred is called the auxiliary function. Thus, if either the S or N function were indicated as being the preferred function, then either the T or F function would be the auxiliary function.

So, introverts are more likely to exhibit their auxiliary function when relating to the outer world, whereas their dominant function will be used mainly when relating to the inner world, and will thus not be readily accessible for others to see. In contrast, because Extraverts use their dominant function in the outer world, it will be available for all to see.

What is in it for me?

JTI is an important step in regards to appreciation and improved usability of the human resources in an organisation. This is caused by JTI being a tool which gives the individual an insight to him/
herself, and also provides people with an understanding of other people’s action patterns.

By identifying one’s preferred way to communicate, understand and handle assignments and issues, the individual may, among other things, learn more about his/her strengths and weaknesses
regarding both assignments and the collaboration with others.

JTI may also give an image of a group as a whole – its specific competencies and differences – and contribute to better use of resources, better understanding and improved conflict management
in a group development process. Furthermore, JTI may provide you with a description of how the organisation (or different parts of the organisation) is combined, and thus provide you with an image of
dominant cultures and ways of which the organisation or parts of it, perceives itself.

The Jungian Type Index (JTI) is developed by the two Norwegian psychologists Hallvard Ringstad and Thor Ødegaard and is based upon Jung’s type theory about human similarities and differences.